Floripa has some of the most consistent surf in Brazil. It picks bigger swells coming from the Southern Atlantic and Antartica. During summer, it receives a lot of swell from the north, and during the rest of the year from the south (antartica). From May until October is usually the best time.
Joaquina beach is the most popular and consistent spot in the island. It is a poweful beach break and it hosted the WCT a couple of years. The Campeche beach rights, in perfect conditions, is a world class wave.
Other great spots are Moçambique and Lagoinha do leste to avoid the crowd and Mole beach to see the beautiful girls. Barra da Lagoa beach is a great learning spot and recommended for beginners.
Evandro dos Santos Surf School is a popular surfing school located in Barra da Lagoa that rent surfboards as well.

More surfing information at Nexus surf